SOUTHWEST JOURNAL OF LINGUISTICS
THE JOURNAL OF THE LINGUISTIC ASSOCIATION OF THE SOUTHWEST
2001 Abstracts, Volume 1.
PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS: A MILLENNIAL REFLECTION SOBRE LA NUEVA RECONQUISTA
New Mexico State University
ABSTRACT. The U.S. is the fifth largest Spanish speaking country in the world, after Mexico, Spain, Colombia and Argentina. Las variedades del español habladas en los EEUU provienen de varias regiones del mundo hispanohablante. Hasta las más antiguas, como por ejemplo el español del norte de Nuevo México, tienen origines firmemente arraigados en variedades de México y del Caribe, con nuevas influencias de Centro América y, en una medida reducida, de Sudamérica. A pesar de esto, el español hablado en los EEUU ya tiene sus propias características. The varieties of Vulgar Latin now grouped under the label Spanish have been immensely enriched over the centuries by contact with other languages, notably Arabic in the Iberian Peninsula and Náhuatl in North America. This enrichment came about historically due to armed invasions, y por eso el uso de 'la nueva reconquista'. We are witnessing what is perhaps the largest contact phenomenon since the incursion of the Musulmanes en la Península Ibérica or Cortés' conquest of Mexico, although this reconquista is, in large part, pacific. What will be the outcome? Según las indicaciones, un continuo crecimiento de la presencia del español in the United States, and a continued enriquecimiento del idioma as a result.
2000 KEYNOTE ADDRESS: DEGREES OF BILINGUALISM IN OTOMÍ COMMUNITIES
Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México
ABSTRACT. Mexican census figures list monolinguals and bilinguals in indigenous languages. Non-specialists assume that bilinguals are fluent in both their native language and Spanish; that is, non-specialists think of bilinguals as what sociolinguists often call balanced bilinguals, or those who have a good command of both languages (Poplack, 1981). In contrast, linguists recognize different degrees of bilingualism. This paper focuses on Otomí-Spanish bilingualism found in Mexico. After distinguishing different types of bilinguals, the article gives examples from bilingual speakers demonstrating how features apparent in their Spanish can be explained by Otomí structure (Lastra, 1987, 1990). The article also gives examples of Spanish loans and examples from Otomí texts where the grammar shows Spanish influence.
TEXAS CZECH: THE LANGUAGE OF TEXANS WHO SAY THEY SPEAK 'A DIFFERENT TYPE OF CZECH'
East Carolina University
ABSTRACT. In this paper I use elicited data from ethnolinguistic fieldwork in two historically Czech Moravian communities of Central Texas to analyze typical features of Texas Czech, a reduced (Polinsky 1995), immigrant variety of Czech based on the dialects of 19th century Northeastern Moravia (presently part of the Czech Republic). My consultants, divided into two age groups (born before or after1945), are second-to-fourth generation descendants of the first settlers to Texas from this region. The linguistic analysis has identified specific structural features that show relatively high attrition rates, as well as those that are much less susceptible to change. The data are assessed in light of findings for immigrant Czech in the US and other language contact situations.
CANONICALLY LONG AND GEMINATE VOWELS IN CHIMILA (CHIBCHAN)
ABSTRACT. In current phonological literature the possibility that a language could include both geminate multisyllabic vowels and canonically long monosyllabic vowels within its phonological inventory has not been entertained often. In fact, such an analysis is considered to be ruled out by the Obligatory Contour Principle (OCP). Here I claim that Chimila includes both canonically long monosyllabic and geminate disyllabic vowels within its phonological system. I defend this claim on the basis of a combination of evidence, including contrasts in identical or near-identical environment, phonetic length differences, the interaction of stress and pitch patterns, vowel shortening processes, distributional restrictions on neighboring consonantal segments, and morphological processes (reduplication and imperative formation).
SEMANTIC AND PRAGMATIC FUNCTIONS OF THE SPANISH DIMINUTIVE IN SPANISH IN CONTACT WITH QUECHUA
ANNA MARÍA ESCOBAR
University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign
ABSTRACT. The diminutive in Spanish in contact in Peru includes innovative functions in addition to the semantic and pragmatic functions already described for other varieties of Spanish. These innovative pragmatic functions, that are speaker-hearer-based, refer to MODESTY and DEFERENTIAL POLITENESS. These functions are found in specific socio-pragmatic contexts; specifically, non-affective and non-familiar situations, where the interlocutors do not know each other, but share equally high social status. The use of the diminutive conveys a cordial exchange, reducing the relative formality of the interaction. The prominence of discourse-related concepts in Quechua is suggested to serve as one of the major underlying forces leading to these innovative functions in the Spanish system, which are consistent with the semantic development of the diminutive as reported in the crosslinguistic literature. Moreover, examination of these functions seems to suggest that when contact morphological phenomena express speaker-hearer-related functions, resistance to permeability is reduced, and explained in terms of the sociolinguistic relevance of the interaction.
PARAGUAYAN LANGUAGE POLICY AND THE FUTURE OF GUARANÍ
SHAW N. GYNAN
Western Washington University
ABSTRACT. Paraguay is unique among countries of the Americas in that a substantial majority of the population speaks an indigenous language, Guaraní. Socioeconomic and demographic dimensions of Paraguay Guaraní-Spanish bilingualism appear to favor the vitality of Guaraní, especially in the rural sector, well into the 21st century. The early nineties saw significant advances in language policy. Guaraní is now co-official with Spanish and bilingual education has been implemented in compliance the standards for linguistic human rights of the Inter-American Commission on Human Rights of the Organization of American States. Despite these positive signs, Guaraní mother tongue literacy education is limited mainly to urban areas. Large numbers of speakers of Paraguayan Guaraní and other indigenous languages live in economic 'zones of exclusion'. The challenge facing Paraguay is how to find the political will and economic resources to provide language education and other basic needs to all children in the country.
HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVES ON SPANISH-QUECHUA LANGUAGE CONTACT IN PERU
CAROL A. KLEE
University of Minnesota
ABSTRACT. This essay presents an overview of language policy in Peru from colonial times to the present and analyzes the impact of this policy, together with the underlying social conditions, on Spanish-Quechua language contact and Spanish language change in present-day Peru. As a result of rapid language shift from Quechua to Spanish over the past 60 years, Andean Spanish, a regional variety of Spanish that has resulted from contact with Quechua, is spoken by increasing numbers of individuals. During the latter half of the twentieth century, massive migration from the Andean region has resulted in the spread of Andean Spanish to Lima. There it has begun to influence the traditional Spanish spoken on the coast and destabilize, to some degree, hegemonic creole culture.
THE PROFICIENCY CONTINUUM IN QUECHUA-SPANISH BILINGUAL SPEAKERS: AN ANALYSIS OF THE VERBAL CLITIC SYSTEM
ABSTRACT. In this paper I examine the variable use of verbal clitics in bilingual Spanish, and propose that the contact between Quechua and Spanish is expressed in the existence of more than one clitic system across an oral proficiency continuum in Spanish. I also propose that the clitic use in these different systems is variable and constrained by different factors. The notion of a proficiency continuum is considered to be appropriate to account for the difference in levels of bilingualism in a context where the spoken languages have different social values.