SOUTHWEST JOURNAL OF LINGUISTICS
THE JOURNAL OF THE LINGUISTIC ASSOCIATION OF THE SOUTHWEST
2001 Abstracts, Volume 2.
1999 PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS
FROM CONQUISTADORES TO ZAPATISTAS: LANGUAGE CONTACT, CHANGE, AND JUDGMENTS OF AUTHENTICITY
Louisiana State University
ABSTRACT. Linguistic variation in society arises in part from language contact, and language variation, in turn, results in particular types of language change. Both native speakers and linguists struggle with questions of authenticity in the face of contact-induced language change: Is the past in some sense more authentic than the present? Can performance be authentic? Can a linguist's transcription authentically depict speech? Authenticity is a moving target because all speakers must make a series of decisions about their language use, and all linguists must make decisions about data collection and analysis.
Among endangered languages of the Americas, individual speakers and entire communities struggle for control of their language. To a considerable extent the Mexican Zapatista insurgents, some of whom are speakers of Tojolab'al, are fighting for language rights. Ultimately, speakers own the rights to their own languages, and the field linguist must engage in delicate and diplomatic maneuvers in relation to language ideologies in order to hear actual speech.
VARIABILITY IN WORD ORDER: ADJECTIVES AND COMPARATIVES IN LATIN, ROMANCE, AND GERMANIC
BRIGITTE L.M. BAUER
The University of Texas at Austin
ABSTRACT. Although the history of Latin and other Indo-European languages shows a shift from left-branching (or OV) to right-branching (or VO) constructions, the order in which the structures are affected and the rate at which this happens vary from language to language. In addition, some phrases change more systematically or are more stable than others. This article discusses factors that might be involved in these patterns. It analyses the stability of ordering patterns in two types of structure that both include adjectives: adjectival comparative constructions, and noun phrases that include a noun and an adjective.
On the basis of comparative synchronic and diachronic evidence from Latin, Romance, and Germanic, it is argued that the length and the syntactic complexity of the complement affect the stability in ordering patterns of the syntactic phrase involved. The complexity and the length of the term of reference hand affect the synchronic and diachronic stability of the comparative construction; the lack of complexity and the relative shortness of adjectives in NPs, on the other hand, account for the synchronic, diachronic and cross-linguistic variability that characterizes the place of the adjective. The lack of stability of the adjective therefore is not merely an arbitrary phenomenon.
THE LANGUAGE OF CZECH MORAVIANS IN TEXAS: DO YOU KNOW WHAT PÁRKNU KÁRU U HAUZA MEANS?
East Carolina University
ABSTRACT. This article complements the previously published analysis (Dutkova-Cope 2001) of structural features of Texas Czech, a variety of American Czech based in the dialects of 19th century Northeastern Moravia (presently part of the Czech Republic), by presenting the findings that pertain chiefly to its lexical characteristics. The data, elicited using an English-Czech translation task, come from 39 second-to-fourth generation descendants of the first Moravian settlers, living in two historically Czech Moravian communities of Central Texas. The results for both age groups of consultants are discussed in light of research on American Czech and other enclave (Maher 1985, 1991) languages.
SURFACE ANALOGY AND SPELLING RULES IN ENGLISH VOWEL ALTERNATIONS
University of New Mexico
ABSTRACT. Previous psycholinguistic research into the English vocalic system suggest that the vowel alternations [ed. note: to be updated], termed SPELLING RULE ALTERNATIONS, are psychologically significant for English speakers, in that they can influence the pronunciation of unfamiliar words. In this paper, the influence of these salient alternations on nonce words and neologisms is assessed. The effect of surface analogy on the pronunciation of novel words is also examined. Surface analogy may be defined as the influence exerted by the fully specified surface forms of the morphemic relatives of a word. It assumes that all allomorphs of a given morpheme have individual representation in the mental lexicon.
An experiment was performed in which the participants' task was to determine the pronunciation of a nonce word or neologism when it was combined with a derivational suffix to form a new word. The potential pronunciations of the new words differed in the vowels they contained. A response that contained the same vowel as the test word was a choice in all test items. Other potential responses contained vowels consistent with the spelling rules, vowels predicted by surface analogy, and vowels predicted by neither. The results indicate that the responses were influenced, both by the spelling rule alternations, and by the vowels in the morphemic relatives of the test words. However, the spelling rule alternations exerted more influence than did the morphemic relatives.
THE FORCE OF FORCEP IN ENGLISH
ELLY VAN GELDEREN
Arizona State University
ABSTRACT. In recent work, it has been suggested that the structure of the Complementizer Phrase (CP) is more complex than previously thought. Languages such as Italian, Bulgarian, and Dutch provide evidence for a split CP. In this paper, I examine the Modern English CP and show that there is cross-linguistic variation. I also explore earlier versions of English and identify some reasons that one language, or stage, might have a more expanded CP than another language, or stage.
1999 HELMUT ESAU AWARD WINNER
CHARACTERS IN THE NARRATIVE 'KOMPA NANZI I CHA TIGER': A HALLIDAYAN PERSPECTIVE
University of New Orleans
ABSTRACT. Should characters be considered as real beings or not? According to Chatman (1978) characters are reconstructions based on an original construction and on the discourse related to the character. Therefore, we should consider how characters act, what they say and how they feel. Halliday's (1997) process analysis proposes that humans use a syntactic element, the clause, to express their perception of themselves and the world around them. Each clause contains a process, which includes the participants and circumstances related to the process. Hasan (1989) applies Halliday's approach to a poem in order to decide who does what to whom in the poem. I use Halliday's and Hasan's theories to present a fine-grained analysis of the characters in the narrative 'Kompa Nanzi i Cha Tiger', a trickster story in Papiamentu, a Spanish/Portuguese based creole in the Caribbean, and to point out why the characters seem to be so very human-like.
ICONICALLY MOTIVATED USE OF THE JAPANESE DISCOURSE MARKERS SOREDE, NDE AND DE IN CONVERSATION
University of Arizona
ABSTRACT. The Japanese discourse marker sorede has variants that differ in length (e.g. de, nde) and have often been associated with functions such as coordinative, sequential and consequential. The use of these differing expressions in actual discourse has not yet been fully explored; most previous studies on discourse markers have been limited to qualitative analyses of conversations. This study is unique in that it is based on a quantitative examination of conversations. Following Haiman (1983), this study proposes that these differing expressions are iconically motivated in such a way that the length of the expressions corresponds to the conceptual distance between the utterances these expressions link.
EL SISTEMA VERBAL DEL ESPAÑOL HAITIANO EN CUBA: IMPLICACIONES PARA LAS LENGUAS EN CONTACTO EN EL CARIBE
LUIS A. ORTIZ LÓPEZ
Universidad de Puerto Rico, Río Piedras
ABSTRACT. This article offers a panoramic vision of the linguistic contact between Cubans and Haitians in the southwestern region of Cuba, examining some of the verbal system phenomena (the management of the third person marker and the infinitive as unmarked forms, and the pre-verbal particle ta) found in the speech of Haitian and Cuban-Haitian consultants. These linguistic findings are compared with other modalities of speech such as the bozal varieties of yesteryear, reproduced in literary texts and ethnographic studies, which also originated in the Caribbean as a result of Afro-Hispanic contact. The data examined support the assertion that these speech communities have their own morphosyntactic characteristics. These differ from the characteristics found in the speech of second language learners and from features produced by speakers in the process of creating an interlanguage, or pidgin.
LEXICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF SOUTHWEST SPANISH AND THE ATLAS LINGÜÍSTICO DE HISPANOAMÉRICA
ARNULFO G. RAMÍREZ
Louisiana State University
ABSTRACT. In this study, the lexicon section of the Atlas lingüístico de Hispanoamérica: Cuestionario (Alvar & Quilis, 1984) was administered to twelve adult consultants from three southwestern cities (Albuquerque, San Antonio, Tucson). The lexical items correspond to ten vocabulary domains: human body, clothing, home matters, life cycle, religious matters, recreation, occupations, schooling, weather and geography. The lexical forms produced were classified as Atlas-based forms, Southwest dialect forms, local forms, English-based forms, and lexical gaps. Variation patterns exist across the three locations with respect to the number and type of lexical forms produced by vocabulary domain. Atlas-based responses are most frequent in the religious domain. English-based forms are used across five vocabulary areas, with the highest percentage for clothing items. Lexical gaps are found across eight vocabulary areas, with the highest frequency in items related to schooling. The consultants from Albuquerque produced the highest number of local forms.
ACCULTURATION AND COMMUNICATIVE NEED: LANGUAGE SHIFT IN AN ETHNICALLY DIVERSE HISPANIC COMMUNITY
SUSANA V. RIVERA-MILLS
Northern Arizona University
ABSTRACT. In the last 30 years, studies on the topic of Spanish language maintenance and shift have shown that the use of Spanish is often influenced by social and economic variables within the speech community. Although much has been researched with respect to the three major groups of Hispanics in the United States, it is only recently that newly arrived Latino groups have begun to receive this type of attention. Given these changes in the demographics of Hispanics, it is the purpose of this study to analyze Spanish language use patterns among Hispanics of diverse backgrounds in Fortuna, California, in order to study the influence that social variables, specifically acculturation and communicative need, have on the process of language shift. Analyses of the data point to a rapid, intergenerational language shift to English that is correlated to the participant's perceived identity, level of acculturation, and communicative need for Spanish.