SOUTHWEST JOURNAL OF LINGUISTICS
THE JOURNAL OF THE LINGUISTIC ASSOCIATION OF THE SOUTHWEST
1999 Abstracts, Volume 1.
LESSONS OF PUBLIC LINGUISTICS
ROBERT D. KING
University of Texas at Austin
ABSTRACT. There is a tradition of PUBLIC LINGUISTICS -linguistics in aid of civic issues- in American linguistics that was strongly present at the beginnings of our discipline and continues, though attenuated, to the present. Today language, unfortunately, has emerged as a political issue in American public life. The unity of America is not threatened by language, but many people think otherwise. Linguists have an obligation to engage in public linguistics, but our relevance to public discourse on linguistic matters, notably bilingual education, is often weakened by our elitist attitudes.
1998 KEYNOTE ADDRESS
LANGUAGE, GENDER, AND BIOLOGY: PULMONIC INGRESSIVE AIRSTREAM IN
WOMEN'S SPEECH IN TOHONO O'ODHAM
JANE H. HILL AND OFELIA ZEPEDA
University of Arizona
ABSTRACT. Tohono O'odham women use pulmonic ingressive airstream (PIAS) to construct an atmosphere of conversational intimacy. PIAS exhibits regular patterning in discourse, where it is especially common in repetition, elaboration, and as a turn-transition indicator. Stretches of PIAS align predictably with syntactic constructions, exhibiting left-left alignment with non-lexical maximal projections, and right-right alignment with lexical maximal projections. Cross-linguistically, PIAS has been recorded primarily in the usage of women; two attested cases of male usage are both highly marked. This gender difference is probably related to size differences between male and female vocal tracts; sound production with PIAS is easier to achieve with the smaller female pharynx and larynx.*
1998 HELMUT ESAU AWARD WINNER
THE SEMANTICS OF THE KOREAN MOTION VERBS KKULTA AND TANGKITA
ABSTRACT. Although the Korean verbs kkulta and tangkita are conceptually related to each other within the semantic field of force-dynamic motion, and are translated as to pull in English, they have different conceptual imports with regard to distinct prototypical semantic structures. The semantic differences of the prototypical events kkulta-1 and tangkita-1 are described in terms of their cognitive-functional attributes. Kkulta-1 generally involves a heavy, slow, and labored otion of the large landmark over a long path through space and time. The trajector as well as the landmark moves along an extended path. By contrast, tangkita-1 generally associates with a light and sudden movement of a relatively small landmark along a short path. The trajector of this event does not have an extended path, and only the landmark movement is manipulated to move toward the source of force. The landmark is directed toward the trajector, and the trajector is, thus, conceived as the goal of the landmark's movement as well as the source of force.
HOW SOUTHERN CALIFORNIANS 'TALK DIRTY': TABOO WORDS AS A SOCIOLINGUISTIC VARIABLE
California State University, San Bernardino
ABSTRACT. This study investigates the relationships between several sociocultural factors and the use of taboo words by Southern Californians. It has yielded the following findings: The dirtiest words are semantically biased against females; gender, when taken as a separate factor, does not affect the use of taboo words; socioeconomic class is a contributing factor only for females; there is no significant difference among age groups; and the most telling factors in the use of taboo words are occasion and interlocutor.
EVIDENTIALITY AND EPISTEMIC MODALITY: SETTING BOUNDARIES
FERDINAND DE HAAN
University of New Mexico
ABSTRACT. This article deals with the relationship between evidentiality, the coding of the source of information, and epistemic modality, the coding of the degree of commitment on the part of the speaker to his/her statement. In the literature, it has often been assumed that evidentiality is a kind of epistemic modality. I argue here that the two notions should be distinguished because there are major differences between the two. Evidentiality and epistemic modality differ in their semantics: Evidentials assert the nature of the evidence for the information in the sentence, while epistemic modals evaluate the speaker's commitment for the statement. Also, the origins of evidential morphemes differ greatly from the lexical sources of epistemic modals.
SPANISH AS AN ETHNIC MARKER IN EL PASO, TEXAS
JOSEPH R. WEYERS
College of Charleston
ABSTRACT. Bilinguals of the U.S. Southwest have at their disposal two distinct codes to use with other speakers. As such, bilinguals use Spanish as an ethnic marker to accept other speakers as members of the in-group, or English to exclude them, in situations in which they have a choice of code. This paper shows that the choice of code used in El Paso is based on the perceived ethnicity of the other bilingual speaker. A Mexican and an Anglo researcher held informal and anonymous conversations with employees in El Paso businesses; the conversations were initiated in Spanish and switched to English, with the language of response noted and discussed here. This study shows that Spanish is used as an ethnic marker by bilingual paseños, specifically young male speakers, to include or exclude other bilingual speakers from the in-group.