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1994 Abstracts, Volumes 1-2.

1994 HELMUT ESAU AWARD WINNER: Subordination and Ablaut in Kiowa-Tanoan


ABSTRACT. A new reconstruction of Kiowa-Tanoan consonantal ablaut is proposed that suggests that verb stems traditionally reconstructed as unablauted represent the historically ablauted form of the verb. The proposed reconstruction suggests that historically ablauted forms originated in contexts of syntactic subordination. Under this new conception of Kiowa-Tanoan ablaut (i) the ablaut altemations can be seen as phonologically regular, and (ii) the morphosyntactic distribution of ablaut in the modern Kiowa-Tanoan languages becomes coherent.

1993 HELMUT ESAU AWARD WINNER: On the Prosodic Integrity of Underlying Forms


ABSTRACT. The tendency for underlying and surface forms to adhere to common Prosodic constraints has made for a problematic redundancy in traditional generative phonology, and has motivated influential responses in such theories as Natural Generative Phonology and Prosodic Morphology. This redundancy is referred to here as underlying prosodicity. Synthesizing observations from semiotics and psycholinguistics, I argue that underlying prosodicity is an artifact of the assumption that it is traditional morphemes rather than words that constitute the deepest level of sound-structural representation.

Evidential Uses in the Spanish of Quechua Speakers in Peru



Diachronic Reanalysis in French: Resistant Word Orders


ABSTRACT. It is uncontested that the preferred word order of Latin was SOV (subject-object-Verb) and that Latin had free word order (Machonis: 1993). It is also uncontested that Old French (OF) evolved from Vulgar Latin, losing case markings and verb dessinences, which no longer permitted free word order. This paper examines word order in relative clauses, the last clauses to undergo reanalysis to [SVO] word order, to determine how free inversion, V-to-C movement triggered by A movement, of Old French was reanalyzed in Middle French (MidF) from [TVX] to [SVO], with a focus on relative clauses introduced by que ('that'). Evidence of changing word order in main and dependent clauses in OF and Middle French (MidF) is examined through the work of Vance (1995), Roberts (1993), Zwanenburg (1978) and Clifford (1973). The data show that while main clauses change from [SOV] to [TVX] to [SVO] in a progressive manner, clauses in que show a preference for [TVX] order until the 13th century. [TVX] in que clauses show a resurgence in the 16th century. Stylistic inversion (Styl-Inv) is examined as a structure resistant to the reanalysis of [SVO]. There is evidence in ModF of a return to topicalization tendencies.

How Do News Reports Differ from Human Interest Stories?


ABSTRACT. Although readers distinguish hard news from human interest stories in newspapers, it is not obvious whether the articles differ in functional linguistic variables such as sentence beginnings, frequency of different types of verbs, material between the subject and verb, or patterns of cohesion at the ends of sentences. This study analyzes these variables as they appeared in The Houston Post. Different purposes yielded significant differences. Results supported functional theories about word order: that English sentences tend to begin with orientation, end with newsworthy information, and bury less important concepts in the middle. When verbs were divided into semantic categories with syntactic differences, the proportions of each category in Houston news differed from proportions in human interest stories but resembled proportions in Australian news. These findings reveal relationships of semantic and syntactic patterns.

Indices de mantenimiento del español en el noroeste de Indiana


ABSTRACT. This paper focuses on Spanish language maintenance and pattems of language use in the Latino community of Northwest Indiana. It combines the evaluation of maintenance indexes obtained from the 1990 Census, with the notion of social networks as a framework in which to account for patterns of linguistic maintenance and change. My results provide a description of the present linguistic situation together with an outlook of what is to be expected in the future if the current social, demographic and economic trends persist. It represents the first step of an on-going project to provide a sociolinguistic profile of the long-established Latino community of Northwest Indiana, a region particularly significant for the characterization of small communities located outside the traditional areas of Hispanic presence.

Second-Person Singular Pronoun Options in the Speech of Salvadorans in Houston, Texas


ABSTRACT. This article addresses the changing role of the most intimate of the three second person singular pronouns available to Spanish speakers in some regions of Latin America. El Salvador has long been considered a region of national voseo, where vos has been the preferred informal pronoun with which to address a single interlocutor. In some nations, the pronoun vos exists as one of the options for second person singular pronouns in a tri-level system where ta has come to be identified the intermediate step between the two traditional pronouns, vos and usted. It has been assumed that when these Spanish-speakers travel and/or settle outside their native land they continue employing the linguistic characteristics generally associated with their homeland. The study was designed to identify pronominal usage among Salvadoran Spanish speakers living the Houston, TX, to see what changes, if any, have been initiated by contact with other Spanish speakers who have different speech patterns. The article begins with the findings of some of the previous studies carried out inside United States and in Latin America in order to place the research presented within the corpus of data. The present study is then described in terms of the participating population, the methodolgy employed in both data gathering and analysis, the results, and the conclusions which can be drawn therefrom. Although my conclusions support some of the linguistic behavior previously observed by others, some unexplained facts and diverging trends have also been uncovered. It is the presentation and discussion of the changes in progress that appeared which are the central focus of the article.


Holmes: An Introduction to Sociolinguistics


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